OpenVPN on pfSense - Installation guide for (Windows) Dummies :-) (road-warrior)




  • January 6, 2010: UPDATE: Below process confirmed working on pfSense1.2.2 Relase with OpenVPN Client 2.1.1 on Windows7 Ultimate 64Bit


    Having spend most of my day to get OpenVPN running from a Windows Vista machine to a network on a pfSense box, i feel that a guide is needed for my kind; Windows-users not familiar with OpenVPN and alike 🙂

    A guide of how to connect a PC on the internet, to LAN behind a pfSense firewall using OpenVPN also known as a Road-Warrior setup

    This guide is NOT detailed regarding different configurations, and may not be the best security practices - so use it at your own risk…


    First of all you need to have keys and certificates generated in order to configure the pfSense OpenVPN service;

    1. Download and install the most recent software from http://openvpn.net/download.html
      If you plan to connect from a PC with Windows Vista you should get version 2.1 or newer.

    Use the default options

    1. Start a command prompt with administrator-rights!
      This is done in Vista by clicking on START and then type CMD -> CMD.EXE should appear, and you RIGHT-Click on it and select ‘Run as Administrator’

    2. Change directory to c:\programfiles\openvpn\easy-rsa

    3. run the “init-config.bat” file

    4. Edit ‘vars.bat’ file.
      I suggest using ‘Wordpad’ and to be able to save the file again, you need to start Wordpad in the same manner as the command-prompt (see #2)
      The following things need to be edited:

    "set KEY_COUNTRY=DK"
    2 Letters country ID - I use DK for Denmark

    "set KEY_PROVINCE=na"
    2 Letters Province ID - I use na as in ‘Not Applicable’

    "set KEY_CITY=Copenhagen"
    Name of city

    set KEY_ORG=Frewald
    Name of your company

    set KEY_EMAIL=youremail@address.com
    Put an email-address here. Dont use you private address, since this is the common address for the Certificate Authority (or something…)

    Save the file

    1. Run “vars.bat”

    2. Run “clean-all.bat”

    3. Run "build-ca.bat"
      Then you are prompted for some different things; Leave them at default, except “Common Name” - put something like “pfSense-CA”

    4. Run "build-key-server.bat server"
      Again you are prompted; leave them on default except “Common Name” - use “server”

    5. Run build-dh.bat


    Now its time to generate keys and certificates for the client(s)

    1. Run "build-key.bat ovpn_client1"
      Again you are prompted; leave them on default except “Common Name” - here you should put in “ovpn_client1” (or whatever you have called it)
      The ovpn_client1 will be the name of the keys, certificate and the name you identify the connection on later. You can use whatever name you like, and generate as many as you want (with different names).

    2. The following files should now be copied from c:\programfiles\openvpn
      easy-rsa\keys to c:\programfiles\openvpn\config
      ca.crt
      ovpn_client1.key
      ovpn_client1.crt (if you dont see a .crt file but only a .csr file, chances are that you dont have admin priviligies. Worst case generate the keys and certificates on a NON-Vista machine)

    3. Make a file in the c:\programfiles\openvpn\config
      called “ovpn_client1.ovpn” and the file should contain (leave out the hashes):

    client
    dev tun
    proto udp
    remote 64.233.167.99 1194
    ping 10
    resolv-retry infinite
    nobind
    persist-key
    persist-tun
    ca ca.crt
    cert ovpn_client1.crt
    key ovpn_client1.key
    ns-cert-type server
    comp-lzo
    pull
    verb 3

    Please put in your own public IP address of you pfSense-box in the ‘remote’ line
    If you have chosen another name than ‘ovpn_client1’ then change it in the lines beginning with ‘cert’ and 'key’
    If you have more than one VPN client, you make one .ovpn-file per client (with the corresponding .key and .crt name)


    Now its time to configure pfSense

    1. Log into the web-gui of pfSense

    2. Select VPN/OpenVPN and ad an entry in the ‘server’ page
      Use the following settings:
      Protocol: UDP
      Local port: 1194
      Address pool: 192.168.200.0/24 (it should be a network that you DONT currently use)
      Local Network: 192.168.1.0/24 or whatever the network is that you want the VPN client to connect to !!UPDATE: Note to add this value you need to first add the server setting and the EDIT the settings again!!
      Remote Network: blank
      Cryptography: BF-CBC (128 bit) - or use what you want
      Authentication Method: PKI

    Now you need to have access to some of the files created in c:\programfiles\openvpn
    easy-rsa\keys (mentioned in #12)

    1. Copy the WHOLE content of ca.crt into the “CA certificate” window

    2. Copy the WHOLE content of server.crt into the “Server Certificate” window

    3. Copy the WHOLE content of server.key into the “Server Key” window

    4. Copy the WHOLE content of dh1024.pem into the “DH parameters” window

    5. Tick DHCP-Opt: Disable NetBIOS (I dont use it anyway)

    6. Tick LZO Compression


    Now we need a few simple rules in the firewall

    1. On the WAN interface you should make a rule that;
      PASS
      WAN
      Protocol: UDP
      source: any
      OS type: any
      Destination: any
      Destination port range from: OpenVPN
      Destination port range to: OpenVPN
      Tick in the LOG
      Leave the rest at default.

    2. and another rule on the interface called LAN (or whatever the name of the net defined in #22 ‘address pool’ is);

    PASS
    Any protocol
    Source: LAN (or whatever the name of the net defined in #22 ‘address pool’ is)
    Any destination

    Remember to apply the new rules.

    Now you should be able to connect from OpenVPN (rightlick on the icon in the try and select Connect).
    But remember to start OpenVPN with ADMIN RIGHTS!

    A small trick; If you want a specific client to be able to access more than one subnet, you can add a ‘Client Specific Configuration’ in pfSense;
    Find it in the “WebGui/VPN/OpenVPN/Client-Specific configuration”, use the Common Name given in #11 (ovpn_client1) and in custom options add the following line
    push "route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0"
    if thats the subnet that you want to have connection to.

    Hope this small guide provides some help to those of us who isn’t much into *nix and OpenVPN.

    There is problably a bunch of typ’O’s - please write a comment when you see one that needs to be corrected…

    This setup is working on my current setup:
    pfSense 1.2 RC4 now running on 1.2 RELASE
    OpenVPN 2.1 RC7

    Please visit http://openvpn.net/howto.htm for much more indepth info 🙂

    Best regards,
    Frewald
    ––

    Small update:
    If you later would like to add new clients, run point 2,3,6, and continue from point 11! - dont run point 7-8-9-10!!!
    Also note you need to do this on the machine that was orignally used to issue the certificates.



  • Thanks a lot for this! I’ll be trying it out this week. I totally gave up on OpenVPN, solely because I couldn’t figure it out in the first 10 minutes.



  • This make the thing a hole lote easier. This thread should be Sticky.



  • Thanks a lot for posting this!  🙂



  • thanks, great tutorial!



  • Thanks alot for this tutorial, Frewald!

    Didn’t have time to look into OpenVPN at all.
    Just followed your tutorial the evening before leaving for holidays and now I’m relaxed, enjoying the kids in the pool and keeping an eye on the mails in the office. Again, thanks for my very relaxed week!



  • Hi Frewald,

    These instructions were beautifully easy! Got me up and running in no time!

    Kudos,
    Mantissa



  • Hey Frewald,

    Excellent tutorial. Any objections to me taking (some or all of) this and adding it to the wiki?



  • Frewald, you are the champ !

    Thanks a lot for this “HowTo”

    I love pfsense.



  • Yeah, this is great.



  • @PredatoryFern:

    Hey Frewald,

    Excellent tutorial. Any objections to me taking (some or all of) this and adding it to the wiki?

    Great to hear that people like it - and feel free to post all or parts of it to the Wiki - as long as it helps ppl 🙂



  • Could you please add to this sticky that if your using an OPT interface as your WAN2 that you should use TCP and not UDP for the protocol, this got me stummped until I dug deep on a thread that just mentioned it.



  • What exactly does not work with UDP?
    The problem with TCP is: TCP over TCP should generally not be used where it can be avoided.
    –> http://sites.inka.de/~W1011/devel/tcp-tcp.html



  • I found this information on this forum page http://forum.pfsense.org/index.php/topic,8297.msg46717.html#msg46717

    as soon as I swapped over to using TCP and updated my WAN2 rules to use TCP I could connect to the OpenVPN service on WAN2 (OPT1)



  • followed this tutorial but can only ping and connect to the pfsense box

    protocol: udp
    locol port: 1194
    address pool: 192.168.20.0/27
    local network: 192.168.6.0/25

    attached two pics are firewall rules

    results of ipconfig:

    
    C:\Documents and Settings\Administrator>ipconfig
    
    Windows IP Configuration
    
    Ethernet adapter Wireless Network Connection:
    
            Connection-specific DNS Suffix  . :
            IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.104
            Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.0
            Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.1.1
    
    Ethernet adapter TAP-Win32 Adapter V9:
    
            Connection-specific DNS Suffix  . :
            IP Address. . . . . . . . . . . . : 192.168.20.6
            Subnet Mask . . . . . . . . . . . : 255.255.255.252
            Default Gateway . . . . . . . . . :
    
    

    Results of Route Print:

    
    Network Destination        Netmask          Gateway       Interface  Metric
              0.0.0.0          0.0.0.0      192.168.1.1   192.168.1.104       25
            127.0.0.0        255.0.0.0        127.0.0.1       127.0.0.1       1
          192.168.0.0    255.255.255.0      192.168.0.1     192.168.0.1       20
          192.168.0.1  255.255.255.255        127.0.0.1       127.0.0.1       20
        192.168.0.255  255.255.255.255      192.168.0.1     192.168.0.1       20
          192.168.1.0    255.255.255.0    192.168.1.104   192.168.1.104       25
        192.168.1.104  255.255.255.255        127.0.0.1       127.0.0.1       25
        192.168.1.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.1.104   192.168.1.104       25
          192.168.6.0  255.255.255.128     192.168.20.5    192.168.20.6       1
         192.168.14.0    255.255.255.0     192.168.20.5    192.168.20.6       1
         192.168.20.1  255.255.255.255     192.168.20.5    192.168.20.6       1
         192.168.20.4  255.255.255.252     192.168.20.6    192.168.20.6       30
         192.168.20.6  255.255.255.255        127.0.0.1       127.0.0.1       30
       192.168.20.255  255.255.255.255     192.168.20.6    192.168.20.6       30
        192.168.122.0    255.255.255.0    192.168.122.1   192.168.122.1       20
        192.168.122.1  255.255.255.255        127.0.0.1       127.0.0.1       20
      192.168.122.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.122.1   192.168.122.1       20
            224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0      192.168.0.1     192.168.0.1       20
            224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0    192.168.1.104   192.168.1.104       25
            224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0     192.168.20.6    192.168.20.6       30
            224.0.0.0        240.0.0.0    192.168.122.1   192.168.122.1       20
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255      192.168.0.1     192.168.0.1       1
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.1.104   192.168.1.104       1
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.1.104           f0008       1
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.1.104           10007       1
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255     192.168.20.6    192.168.20.6       1
      255.255.255.255  255.255.255.255    192.168.122.1   192.168.122.1       1
    Default Gateway:       192.168.1.1
    






  • followed this tutorial but can only ping and connect to the pfsense box

    protocol: udp
    locol port: 1194
    address pool: 192.168.20.0/27
    local network: 192.168.6.0/25

    attached two pics are firewall rules

    Are your clients using Vista?

    I had to add the following to my Vista clients config

    route-method exe
    mssfix 1200
    route-delay 2

    And then in the client specifc section in the OpenVPN setup I added the following to the custom options (not the server custom options, the client)

    route-delay 2; ns-cert-type server; msssfix 1200; route-method exe;

    Give that a try



  • right now just using xp clients and those settings did not help :o(

    i can connect to both the vpn interface of the pfsense box and its LAN ipaddress (192.168.6.45) from the laptop on the opposite end of the vpn

    i just cant ping/browse/http/telnet into any other system in the 192.168.6.0/25 and to top it off there is no log in the firewall that would suspect it of any misconfiguration

    its boggling the mind and body!

    –--------------------------------------
    got it to work, i had to change all of the gateways on the servers that i wanted to access from the vpn…that will change when i place the proxy server before the pfsense box and should just work as they are all pointing to the proxy right now

    im soooooooo flipping excited that i got all of these features for the school that i work for without paying thousands on router equipment and licensing fees!

    next step is to create batch files for the staff to auto create all of the client files so i do not get phone calls after hours trying to get them to vpn to the district applications…THANK YOU PFSENSE!



  • So I’ve followed the instructions in this discussion, by the way great job on the howto  When I get a little more familiar I’ll share too.

    Anyway this one got me stumped completely.  I’m setting up a Vista (Ultimate) roadwarrior config to a pfsense box with dual wan, opt1 wan is static, wan is dynamic
    I had issues at first with UDP, switching to TCP was helpful (proto tcp), thanks for the comments on the article guys 🙂

    Anyway I’ve done the vista workaround in the client config:

    route-method exe
    route-delay 20

    In the server client-specific configuration I specify

    route-delay 10; ns-cert-type server; route-method exe

    That being said I’m still getting this error:

    Thats even after attempting the same command myself using administrator mode of course.

    Fri Jun 13 23:34:54 2008 Notified TAP-Win32 driver to set a DHCP IP/netmask of 192.168.200.6/255.255.255.252 on interface {C22CAE94-9A35-48E5-B606-DEF049045B02} [DHCP-serv: 192.168.200.5, lease-time: 31536000]
    Fri Jun 13 23:34:54 2008 Successful ARP Flush on interface [22] {C22CAE94-9A35-48E5-B606-DEF049045B02}
    Fri Jun 13 23:35:05 2008 TEST ROUTES: 2/2 succeeded len=2 ret=1 a=0 u/d=up
    Fri Jun 13 23:35:05 2008 route ADD 192.168.0.1 MASK 255.255.255.0 192.168.200.5
    The route addition failed: The parameter is incorrect.
    Fri Jun 13 23:35:05 2008 route ADD 192.168.200.1 MASK 255.255.255.255 192.168.200.5
    OK!
    Fri Jun 13 23:35:05 2008 Initialization Sequence Completed

    The thing that sticks in my mind is why just the one route ADD command that fails?

    Oh an before anyone asks I’m running the latest RC build (2.1 rc7) and running OpenVPN GUI in administrator mode

    And thats the saga, now if one of you fine gents could spare a couple minutes I’d REALLY appreciate it 🙂
    I’m sure its gotta be something reasonably simple that I’m just not getting.

    Thanks in advance,
    lifethetech



  • Does the Vista PC have UAC enabled on it?

    I enabled UAC the other day and then tried to connect to work using OpenVPN and the routes were not added. If you have UAC on try disabling it.



  • I did have UAC on, but I’ve turned it off and tested again, no joy yet 😞

    I’m still getting the same error.  Just a little more info I am on the latest release of pfsense.

    And I guess it would be pertinent to tell everyone that I’m using Vista with all the latest patches and SP1

    Thanks in advance,
    lifethetech

    EDIT: I’ve noticed in the openvpn pfsense logs errors related to the client specific openvpn settings:

    laptopxxxx/n.n.n.n:49393 Options error: option ‘route-delay’ cannot be used in this context
    laptopxxxx/n.n.n.n:49393 Options error: option ‘ns-cert-type’ cannot be used in this context
    laptopxxxx/n.n.n.n:49393 Options error: option ‘route-method’ cannot be used in this context

    with the n’s being the client’s IP address

    Not sure if that helps or not 🙂

    edit:

    A little more info, I’ve tried tearing down the whole setup and redoing it all then installing the client on XP here is the error from the XP box (still the same error on vista):

    The route addition failed: The specified mask parameter is invalid. (Destination & Mask) != Destination



  • Fix to the link on the original post…

    http://openvpn.net/index.php/documentation/howto.html

    🙂



  • Just for the record, I’ve posted a slightly modified version for my own personal records on my blog. Big thanks for the work you did here mate!

    http://www.jpuddy.net/2008/11/25/setting-up-a-road-warrior-style-vpn-connection-with-pfsense-and-openvpn/



  • I just got this configuration setup and getting the following errors in the logs.
    RC

    Dec 27 15:44:09 openvpn[11789]: Use –help for more information.
    Dec 27 15:44:09 openvpn[11789]: Options error: Unrecognized option or missing parameter(s) in /var/etc/openvpn_server0.conf:14: lport (2.0.6)
    Dec 27 12:59:14 openvpn[356]: Use –help for more information.
    Dec 27 12:59:14 openvpn[356]: Options error: Unrecognized option or missing parameter(s) in /var/etc/openvpn_client0.conf:14: remote (2.0.6)
    Dec 27 12:59:12 openvpn[354]: Use –help for more information.
    Dec 27 12:59:12 openvpn[354]: Options error: Unrecognized option or missing parameter(s) in /var/etc/openvpn_server0.conf:14: lport (2.0.6)



  • Great Tutorial,Thanks  🙂



  • Tried openvpn version OpenVPN 2.1_rc15 i686-pc-mingw32  and all worked fine as expected.



  • GReat tutorial! Thankx! 😉



  • Just one quick question: what encryption whould you use?



  • This is a awesome overview of OpenVPN.  I got it up and running in a few hours.  Once up it is now working.  I just need to make sure that I can connect to more tunnels that are avaiable.

    RC



  • Awesome guide! I got this working over TCP port 443 since we have a blanket port block here at work. If anyone else is trying to do this using TCP, remember to change the guide/defaults:

    1. On the OpenVPN Add tab in pfSense.
    2. On the WAN-LAN rule.
    3. In the config file for the OVPN client install.
    4. Change the pfSense web port from 443 to something else (4443) if using HTTPS.

    I forgot to change the proto line in #3 from UDP to TCP, and I forgot about #4 – that wasted 20 minutes of my life.



  • Creating certificates manually on Windows (by Hernan Maslowski)
    You can also create the keys with a Win32 program called “My Certificate
    Wizard”: http://www.openvpn.se/mycert/

    and tutorial easy to run

    http://www.enterprisenetworkingplanet.com/linux_unix/article.php/3802221/Run-OpenVPN-on-Windows-Mac-and-LinuxUnix.htm…😮



  • A big thank you to Frewald and tacfit for their howto !

    Even i hadn’t compare the 2 howto to notice differences  ;D

    Just 2 questions (i admit, i’ve not searched before posting these two questions) :

    • Is it possible to protect the CA created locally ? i remember have read a tutorial explaining how to protect with a password (requested at each certificate creation)

    • Is it possible to implement the TLS-Auth ? i think have seen a package for this…

    Well, as i’ve tested, i feedback  ;D



  • I would have NEVER figured this out without this tutorial.

    Working on a winxp machine to a PFSENSE box / network.

    I do have one concern in the logs on OPENVPN I see

    Sep 1 15:08:08 openvpn[39663]: ovpn_client1/99.253.209.93:3040 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: bad packet ID (may be a replay): [ #6080 ] – see the man page entry for --no-replay and --replay-window for more info or silence this warning with --mute-replay-warnings
    Sep 1 15:08:08 openvpn[39663]: ovpn_client1/99.253.209.93:3040 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: bad packet ID (may be a replay): [ #6080 ] – see the man page entry for --no-replay and --replay-window for more info or silence this warning with --mute-replay-warnings
    Sep 1 15:08:08 openvpn[39663]: ovpn_client1/99.253.209.93:3040 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: bad packet ID (may be a replay): [ #6078 ] – see the man page entry for --no-replay and --replay-window for more info or silence this warning with --mute-replay-warnings
    Sep 1 15:08:08 openvpn[39663]: ovpn_client1/99.253.209.93:3040 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: bad packet ID (may be a replay): [ #6077 ] – see the man page entry for --no-replay and --replay-window for more info or silence this warning with --mute-replay-warnings
    Sep 1 15:08:08 openvpn[39663]: ovpn_client1/99.253.209.93:3040 Authenticate/Decrypt packet error: bad packet ID (may be a replay): [ #6077 ] – see the man page entry for --no-replay and --replay-window for more info or silence this warning with --mute-replay-warnings

    I don’t notice anything in particular strange in performance but this log is running continuously reporting errors.

    Thank You!



  • This is a great manual. It worked well for me. Thanks a lot!



  • Sorry, but this tutorial did NOT work for me :-[

    after 3 tries, I printed it out and checked off the steps as I performed them (now 4th try), and even disabled the f/w on my winXP client, and still no joy.

    pfsense 1.2.2 which is LAN f/w, DHCP server, and openvpn gate.
    Winxp, SP3, latest openvpn client, firewall disabled….

    On the client log, this is all i get:
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 OpenVPN 2.1_rc19 i686-pc-mingw32 [SSL] [LZO2] [PKCS11] built on Jul 16 2009
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 NOTE: OpenVPN 2.1 requires ‘–script-security 2’ or higher to call user-defined scripts or executables
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 LZO compression initialized
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 Control Channel MTU parms [ L:1542 D:138 EF:38 EB:0 ET:0 EL:0 ]
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 Data Channel MTU parms [ L:1542 D:1450 EF:42 EB:135 ET:0 EL:0 AF:3/1 ]
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 Local Options hash (VER=V4): '41690919’
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 Expected Remote Options hash (VER=V4): '530fdded’
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 Socket Buffers: R=[8192->8192] S=[8192->8192]
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 UDPv4 link local: [undef]
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 UDPv4 link remote: 142.25.56.3:1194
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 TLS: Initial packet from 142.25.56.3:1194, sid=8cfa3413 d6470101
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 VERIFY OK: depth=1, /C=CA/ST=BC/L=Bamfield/O=BMSC/CN=openvpnbmsc/emailAddress=admin@bms.bc.ca
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 VERIFY OK: nsCertType=SERVER
    Thu Sep 10 17:14:17 2009 VERIFY OK: depth=0, /C=CA/ST=BC/O=BMSC/CN=server/emailAddress=admin@bms.bc.ca

    On this same firewall, as a test I was able to copy the certs from an older openvpn install at another org, and the client keys for same, and it DID connect, but any NEW clients created even using the older certgen, refused to work. Its all very puzzling… ???

    regards
    Ken



  • how can I copy the file certificate.crt (the file in my openvpn/easy-rsa/keys) in the format x.509 insite the windows?
    In your guide you sayd:

    Now you need to have access to some of the files created in c:\programfiles\openvpn
    easy-rsa\keys (mentioned in #12)

    1. Copy the WHOLE content of ca.crt into the “CA certificate” window
    2. Copy the WHOLE content of server.crt into the “Server Certificate” window
    3. Copy the WHOLE content of server.key into the “Server Key” window
    4. Copy the WHOLE content of dh1024.pem into the “DH parameters” window

    Can you help me?



  • Right-click on file, Open With, Notepad or something similar.



  • Thank you very mutch!!



  • Great guide, got OpenVPN up and running in 30 minutes!

    Together with OpenVPN GUI this is a really slick solution, compared to using port forwards in spaghetti like soup which is inevitable if you have many machines behind a NAT router.



  • A little hint to those following this guide and then proceeding to setup their own WINS server in order to access machines by computer name instead of IP.

    By default the Windows XP firewalls limits printer and file sharing access to the local subnet which causes trouble when you have a road warrior style setup with two subnets.

    To allow file and printer sharing from other subnets follow the steps in this guide: http://www.dharwadkar.com/weblog/firewall_block



  • Going to read some more docs, but if anyone feels like answering…

    1. If I put the ‘extra option’ for password in the cert when generating does that require the client to also use a password when connecting,or can I set that somewhere else?

    2. How do I add (what is the starting point, I don’t need a step by step…): additional clients now that the server part is all setup and I can connect with the first client.  I think I can figure it out… just asking in case it’s a quick reply someone can share.


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