Strange problem with VoIP adapter

  • Hi

    Sorry, I'm quite a firewall newbie… My Grandstream 286 VoIP adapter is having problems connecting to my VoIP provider. I have just switched from m0n0wall to pfsense, and I had no problems with the device in m0n0wall. Here is some diagnosis, I can provide more (e.g. a working config file from m0n0wall):

    internet <--> firewall <--> switch <--> adapter

    According to my provider ( I have to open UDP port 5060 og 5061, plus port 5004 on the firewall. My WAN ruleset is now:

    Proto        Source  Port Destination    Port            Gateway
    TCP          *            *    80 (HTTP)  *
    TCP          *            *    22 (SSH)    *
    TCP          *            *    25 (SMTP) *
    UDP        *            *    5060          *
    UDP        *            *    5061          *
    TCP/UDP *            *    5004          *

    and LAN:
    *            LAN net  *      *                    *                *

    where is my www/ssh/mail server and is the adapter. Both have a static IP adress, given to them by DHCP.
    My NAT config is:

    If      Proto          Ext. port range NAT IP            Int. port range
    WAN    TCP        80 (HTTP)    80 (HTTP)
    WAN    TCP        22 (SSH)    22 (SSH)
    WAN    TCP        25 (SMTP)    25 (SMTP)

    From the status page of the adapter I get:

    MAC Address:      00.0B.82.02.F3.D7
    WAN IP Address:
    Registered:          No
    PPPoE Link Up:  disabled
    NAT:                    detected NAT type is symmetric NAT
    NAT Mapped IP:    # (xxx added for extra Security(TM))
    NAT Mapped Port:55813

    This worries me; shouldn't WAN and NAT be switched around?

    IN the firewall log I see (apart from 2 million Windows-vira) the following packets blocked:

    WAN      UDP is a Telefin server. Notice that the port 55813 is the "NAT Mapped Port" announced by the adapter.

    I have tried opening port 55813 without any luck. I have tried mapping port 5060-5061 and 5004 on WAN to the same ports on the adapter in the NAT setup without any luck. I have not fiddled with any "advanced" settings... Any suggestions?

    Kind regards,
    Erik Andersen

  • I guess the voipadapter calls his interface "wan" (it looks like as it even supports pppoe, so this might be the case). So the WAN/NAT IP might be something you shouldn't worry about. Have you tried forwarding the port the adapter wants to use (55813)? Not only opening up the port but forwarding it? As you see blocks on WAN for this port you should revisit this setting and check it again. Also note that the protocol that is blocked is UDP not TCP.

  • Hmm, I don't think I should be opening the port 55813 on the firewall. I tried rebooting the adapter, and the I get NATMapped Port: 53050. One more time, and I get 51048. If I understand correctly, outgoing connections are assigned a random port number, e.g. my connection to this site in the state table:

    Type  Proto  Source->Router->Destination            State

    The port 1407 changes for every new connection I make to this site. Likewise, it seems the NAT mapped port is randomly assigned. My guess is that pfsense is assigning the port and somehow my adapter is picking it up. These are the relevant entries in my state table:

    Type Proto Source->Router->Destination State
    self  udp<-                                          MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE
    self  udp<-                                    NO_TRAFFIC:SINGLE
    self  udp<-                                    MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE
    self  udp<-                                    MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE
    self  udp>>  SINGLE:NO_TRAFFIC
    self  udp>>  MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE
    self  udp>>  MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE

    I'm really on shaky ground here, but the first one is easy; it's a DNS lookup. Then we have three connections to to Telefin servers, plus three connections more, using seemingly random ports on the firewall WAN port. If I open e.g. port 51028, I will get an incoming connection from Telefin (but still no association), but otherwise I have no incoming connections.


  • Sorry to reply to myself, but Wikipedia can be your friend sometimes…

    My adapter apparently calls a STUN server to establish a connection between clients behind NAT. Quoting Wikipedia, "It will not work with symmetric NAT" and quoting the adapter status page, "detected NAT type is symmetric NAT".

    I have now tried disabling STUN on the adapter and using NAT to forward the WAN ports 5060, 5061 and 5004 to my adapter:

    If      Proto      Ext. port range  NAT IP          Int. port range
    WAN  UDP        5060 - 5061  5060 - 5061
    WAN  TCP/UDP  5004        5004

    My state table now reads:
    self  udp<-                                          MULTIPLE:MULTIPLE
    self  udp<-                                    NO_TRAFFIC:SINGLE
    self  udp>>  SINGLE:NO_TRAFFIC
    self  udp<-                                NO_TRAFFIC:SINGLE

    Still no luck, though. Why is the last state not going through to when I have the above NAT rules?


  • Maybe the sip-proxy (siproxd) package is worth a try.  Give it a shot.

  • Damn, there is no package support for embedded platforms. I'm on a WRAP board :-/

    I tried loading my working m0n0wall config file into pfsense, and the VoIP adapter still reports "symmetric NAT" as the NAT type, whereas it was "(port?) restricted cone" in m0n0wall. Is there any way to change the NAT type in pfsense?


  • Did you get this working ever?

  • No, unfortunately I had to switch back to m0n0wall since I lacked the time to investigate further. But I've aquired another CF card so testing is easier now, if anyone has suggestions.

    Update: apparently Phil Regnauld from BSD-DK has it working with a Grandstream adapter by adding

    set timeout { udp.first 60, udp.single 60, udp.multiple 60 }
    nat on $ext_if from $int_net to any -> $ext_ip static-port

    to /etc/pf.conf - the important part being the keyword "static-port". I'll try it when I have some spare time in the weekend.

  • Beta 2 will include a static-port option in advanced outbound-nat.

  • Cool! Thanks for the notice, I'll let you know how it works out when beta2 is out.

  • I was able to get my asterisk SIP server working behind the pfsense firewall by using 1:1 NAT for that box.

    It looks like regular NAT is symmetric while 1:1 uses cone NAT, which is what SIP needs.

  • Newer testing versions are available at:

    Look for "TESTING" dirs.

  • @sullrich:

    Newer testing versions are available at:

    Look for "TESTING" dirs.

    What does this version have do make SIP work better?

    Will it support multiple SIP devices connecting through the router?  Such as multiple ATAs with multiple VoIP lines.

  • It includes the static port option.

  • So, I finally managed to get time to look at the problem. I installed BETA2 (leaps and bounds better than BETA1 in almost every area, thanks everybody!), and I'm glad to say that the static-port did the trick. Quick summary:

    Enabled advanced outbound NAT, changed the default outbound rule to enable static-port. Reboot adapter. That's it!

    I'm not sure if I still need the following rules on the NAT: port forward page:

    WAN  UDP  5060 - 5061  5060 - 5061
    WAN TCP/UDP 5004 5004

    Will have to test that.

    Thanks to everybody who replied, end everyone who has worked so hard to make pfsense better!